Christina and Nonna have fixed opinions when it comes to single mothers like Christina. Nonna believes that life without a man is impractical and against Italian tradition. Nonna Katia lived with Nonno Francesco until he died, he was abusive and vulgar. However following Nonna’s traditions she endured the rudeness to follow her Italian values. Nonna always told Christina that she was a disgrace to her family and a bad mother for raising Josephine as a single parent. Nonna said that the Italians in the community would gossip and that Christina would give them a bad reputation. As opposed to Nonna’s views Christina believes that society’s perspective on single parents changed and that the community is now more accepting of single mums. Christina believes that she did a worthy job of raising Josie at such a young young age and that they don’t need a man in their family to be happy.